General George Whiteside
Hanwell, Middlesex, England
Pulborough, Sussex, England


George Whiteside Hillyard was born in Hanwell, Middlesex on 6 February 1864, the only child of George Wright Hillyard (1817-1896) and his second wife Mary Mansfield (1827??). His father had been a police officer at Welwyn, Hertfordshire by 1840 and later worked in the Nottingham County Jail before becoming superintendent at the Central London District School in West London in 1861. After his first wife Lucy had died in early 1862, he married Mary Mansfield in December the same year.

In 1877, George senior sent his 13-year-old son to the Royal Navy. At first, he came to the Britannia Royal Naval College as a cadet. In 1879, he was promoted to midshipman and was assigned to the HMS Bacchante which toured the colonies of the British Empire around the world from 1880 to 1882. Among his fellow midshipmen were Prince Albert and Prince George (later King George V).

Hillyard resigned from the Navy with the rank of sub-lieutenant on 2 October 1885. His last posting was aboard the HMS Minotaur.
Hillyard had been already introduced to tennis at the age of ten by his uncle, who had set up a Sphairistike court in 1875. However, he didn't like what he called "pat-ball" at first, and preferred cricket. After his Navy service, however, the rules of the game had undergone significant changes and Hillyard became attracted to it. From 1887, he began to play tournaments.

Hillyard married Blanche Bingley (1863?1946) in Greenford on 13 July 1887, one week after the Wimbledon final.Blanche was the daughter of a wealthy tailoring business proprietor from London, and a successful tennis player. She had won the Wimbledon Championships in the previous year, and would win another five singles titles at Wimbledon alone until 1900. Blanche brought a considerable fortune into the marriage. Only five days after the wedding, the newly married couple competed at the Middlesex Championships at Chiswick Park, and won the mixed doubles title.

In 1889, Hillyard played the Wimbledon singles for the first time. He lost his quarter-final match against Harry Barlow in straight sets. He reached the doubles final twice at Wimbledon with Ernest Lewis in 1889 and 1890, but lost to the Renshaw brothers and Joshua Pim and Frank Stoker, respectively. Alongside Harry Scrivener, he won the doubles title at the British Covered Court Championships in 1890 and 1891. The following years, his focus shifted again to cricket, playing for Leicestershire, until 1896 when he won the singles, doubles, singles handicap and mixed doubles (with his wife) at Monte Carlo.[8] In 1897, he won the first staging of the International German Championships at Hamburg, beating George Ball-Greene in five sets in the final. He repeated his success at Hamburg in 1900. At Wimbledon singles, early losses enabled him to win the All England Plate in 1898, and reach the final in 1899. At the 1901 Wimbledon singles, he beat Laurence Doherty in the third round before losing in the quarter-finals to Arthur Gore.

In 1905, at 41 years of age, Hillyard lost the final at the Bad Homburg tournament against Anthony Wilding. He entered the Wimbledon Championships 1906, conceding a walkover to Arthur Gore. Being assigned secretary of the All England Club in 1907, he never entered the Championships again. However, he did continue to play minor tournaments such as at Eastbourne, Yorkshire and Leicester until 1914. After the Great War, at 55 years of age, he competed at his home tournament at Leicester and even won the mixed doubles alongside Gladys Lamplough.

In 1908, he competed at the London Olympic Games and won the gold medal in doubles alongside Reginald Doherty. However, although being great fan of the Olympics in general, he was less enthusiastic about the idea of tennis being a part of it. In his book Forty Years of First Class Lawn Tennis, published in 1924, he wrote: "As for lawn tennis in conjunction with the Olympic Games, the whole thing is a inconguous farce. You could as well have Olympic cricket or Olympic golf. It is difficult to believe that players or public can treat the matter seriously or care two straws about it. Why it is wanted, or tolerated, when we already have the Davis Cup, is beyond my comprehension."

Hillyard was ranked World No. 5 for 1901 by Karoly Mazak.[

During his time at the Navy, Hillyard played a lot of different sports, but concentrated on cricket, and even was captain of the cricket team for two years. Afterwards, he made his first appearance for Middlesex against the Marylebone Cricket Club in 1886. Although initially quite successful, he soon thereafter realized he had great difficulties to compete on a first-class level. Consequently, from 1887 to 1890 he virtually retired, blaming his time at the Navy which allegedly had prevented him from practising more. However, in 1891, he took cricket up again and played some first class matches for the MCC as well as the Gentlemen Players. Later that year, he participated in a trip of English cricketers to North America led by Lord Hawke in winter 1891/92. There, Hillyard played both first-class matches at Philadelphia. In 1894, Lord Hawke arranged another trip to North America, and Hillyard was again member of the party. At Philadelphia, he played in front of an audience of 10,000.

Upon his return, Hillyard occasionally played cricket for another two years, making a total of 49 first class matches in his career. After 1896, he fully committed himself to tennis.[13]
Hillyard and his wife lived at Leicestershire from at least 1893. In 1896, they moved into a large house with extensive grounds at Thorpe Satchville, a small village near Leicester. The mansion provided nine bedrooms as well as two tennis courts and a nine-hole golf course.[14] The Hillyards frequently hosted popular house parties with tennis champions such as Norman Brookes, Harold Mahony, Anthony Wilding, May Sutton, Violet Pinckney and Dora Boothby as guests. Until 1914, almost every strong foreign player who played at Wimbledon stayed at the home of the Hillyards.[9]

Hillyard, a long-time member of the All England Club along with his wife, was its secretary from 1907 to early 1925. One of his major concerns was the upkeep of the courts, and he insisted on high standards of court maintenance. In 1910, the club purchased a motor roller for the courts in order to replace the horse roller.[15]

With the success of the Wimbledon tournament, the necessity to move the ground from his initial location at Worple Road to a larger site became obvious. This had been discussed as early as Hillyard became secretary in 1907, but searching for a better suitable site took time, and the outbreak of World War I further postponed the issue. From 1914 to 1918, Hillyard rejoined the Navy, leaving it with the rank of commander.[16] After the war, the decision to build a new ground was confirmed in 1919. The new site was opened at the 1922 Wimbledon Championships. After the 1919 Wimbledon Championships, the decision to build a new ground was confirmed. As the secretary, Hillyard was probably heavily involved in the search for, and selection of the new site at Church Road, and worked together with architect Stanley Peach.[17] The new site was opened at the 1922 Wimbledon Championships.Beside his secretary post, Hillyard also was an umpire at Wimbledon. From 1919 to 1932, he umpired every ladies final.[18]

Being passionate about building perfect grass courts, Hillyard kept thinking about how to construct an equally good all-weather court. In 1909, he met Claude Brown, a manager of a nearly bankrupt brickard at Syston near Leicester. Hillyard had been on a tennis tour in South Africa the winter before where he had played on courts made of crushed up ant heaps. He told this story to Brown, and both developed the idea of using crushed bricks for court surface. The first court was laid out at Hillyard's home at Thorpe Satchville, and was called En-tout-cas (literally "in all cases") upon the idea of a guest, a French lady. Brown renamed his company after it.[19] By 1914, business boomed across England. An agent was hired for the United States market, and the company turned into a multimillion-pound business. When the Championships moved to its new site at Church Road in 1922, nine en-tout-cas courts were laid beside the grass courts. For many years, the British Junior Championships were played on en-tous-cas.[19]

Hillyard's relationship to the En-tout-cas company throughout the years is somewhat diffuse. Clearly, he was in the perfect position to promote the court surface, and he was certainly involved in the decision to construct en-tout-cas courts at the new Wimbledon grounds, giving them a marketing coup. In 1929, when being involved in the construction of a golf course ? a job which was given to En-tout-cas on Hillyard's recommendation ?, he eventually disclosed that he was a director of En-tout-cas, thus obviously receiving income from the company.[20]

In 1925, at an age of 61, Hillyard resigned from his position as secretary of the All England Club. In the same year, he sold his house at Thorpe Satchville, and the Hillyards moved to Bramfold, Pulborough, Sussex. Their new house was of similar size, and Hillyard again constructed two tennis courts,[21] but began to focus on playing golf. Upon his initiative, a new golf course was completed at the West Sussex Golf Club, and opened on 8 August 1930.[20]

Hillyard died at his home on 25 March 1943, aged 79. His wife Blanche was to survive him for three years. The couple had two children, Jack (1890?1983) and Marjorie (1895??). Jack was also a tennis player, competing at Wimbledon in the 1920s and reaching the final of the All England Plate in 1924. Marjorie was mentally handicapped and stayed with her parents until the death of her mother. She spent the rest of her life at a care home in West Sussex.[22]


Archive statistics 1887 - 1926

Tournament wins 1908 - Leicester (Amateur)
1908 - East of England Championships (Open)
1907 - Sussex Championships (Amateur)
1907 - South of England Championships (Amateur)
1907 - East of England Championships (Open)
1906 - Northumberland Championships (Amateur)
1906 - Wimbledon Plate (Consolation) (Open)
1905 - Leicester (Amateur)
1902 - Buxton (Amateur)
1901 - Portuguese International Championships (Open)
1900 - German International Championships ()
1900 - Northumberland Championships (Amateur)
1900 - Buxton (Amateur)
1898 - Wimbledon Plate (Consolation) (Open)
1897 - German International Championships ()
1896 - Monte Carlo (Grand Prix Circuit)
1895 - Midland Counties Championships (Amateur)
1894 - Midland Counties Championships (Amateur)
1893 - Midland Counties Championships (Amateur)
1889 - Cheltenham (Amateur)

Tournaments Beaulieu - 1926 Marseille - 1921 South of England Championships - 1913 Prussian Championships - 1912 Deauville - 1912 South of England Championships - 1912 Nottingham - 1910 East of England Championships - 1910 Skegness - 1910 South African Championships - 1909 Olympics, Olympic Games - 1908 North of England Championships - 1908 Nottingham - 1908 Northumberland Championships - 1908 Leicester - 1908 South of England Championships - 1908 East of England Championships - 1908 Hythe - 1908 Sussex Championships - 1907 Northumberland Championships - 1907 South of England Championships - 1907 East of England Championships - 1907 Wimbledon - 1906 Cannes Championships - 1906 European Championship - 1906 Midland Counties Championships - 1906 Northumberland Championships - 1906 Homburg Cup - 1906 Baden-Baden - 1906 South of England Championships - 1906 British Covered Court Championships - 1906 Wimbledon Plate (Consolation) - 1906 Wimbledon - 1905 German International Championships - 1905 Dinard - 1905 European Championship - 1905 Midland Counties Championships - 1905 Northumberland Championships - 1905 Homburg Cup - 1905 Leicester - 1905 Championships of Hamburg - 1905 South of England Championships - 1905 Pöseldorf Prize - 1905 London Covered Court Championships - 1905 Buxton - 1905 Sussex Championships - 1904 Midland Counties Championships - 1904 Northumberland Championships - 1904 South of England Championships - 1904 London Covered Court Championships - 1904 Buxton - 1904 Monte Carlo - 1903 South of France Championships - 1903 British Covered Court Championships - 1903 Wimbledon - 1902 Monte Carlo - 1902 European Championship - 1902 Northumberland Championships - 1902 Homburg Cup - 1902 Leicester - 1902 Cinque Ports Championships - 1902 South of England Championships - 1902 Homburg Coronation Cup - 1902 Buxton - 1902 Wimbledon - 1901 Monte Carlo - 1901 Cannes Championships - 1901 South of France Championships - 1901 German International Championships - 1901 Sussex Championships - 1901 Midland Counties Championships - 1901 Northumberland Championships - 1901 Portuguese International Championships - 1901 South of England Championships - 1901 British Covered Court Championships - 1901 Northern Lawn Tennis Association Tournament - 1901 Buxton - 1901 German International Championships - 1900 Sussex Championships - 1900 Midland Counties Championships - 1900 Northumberland Championships - 1900 Homburg Cup - 1900 South of England Championships - 1900 Buxton - 1900 Wimbledon - 1899 Sussex Championships - 1899 South of England Championships - 1899 Wimbledon Plate (Consolation) - 1899 Buxton - 1899 Wimbledon - 1898 Monte Carlo - 1898 German International Championships - 1898 Sussex Championships - 1898 Midland Counties Championships - 1898 Northumberland Championships - 1898 South of England Championships - 1898 Bournemouth - 1898 Wimbledon Plate (Consolation) - 1898 Northern Lawn Tennis Association Tournament - 1898 Buxton - 1898 Wimbledon - 1897 Irish Championships - 1897 South of France Championships - 1897 German International Championships - 1897 Sussex Championships - 1897 Midland Counties Championships - 1897 Northumberland Championships - 1897 Homburg Cup - 1897 Baden-Baden - 1897 South of England Championships - 1897 Northern Lawn Tennis Association Tournament - 1897 Buxton - 1897 Edgbaston - 1897 Monte Carlo - 1896 Sussex Championships - 1896 South of England Championships - 1896 Northern Lawn Tennis Association Tournament - 1896 Sussex Championships - 1895 Midland Counties Championships - 1895 South of England Championships - 1895 Buxton - 1895 Edgbaston - 1895 Midland Counties Championships - 1894 Northern Lawn Tennis Association Tournament - 1894 Edgbaston - 1894 Wimbledon - 1893 Sussex Championships - 1893 Midland Counties Championships - 1893 Leicester - 1893 South of England Championships - 1893 Buxton - 1893 Edgbaston - 1893 Wimbledon - 1892 Irish Championships - 1892 Sussex Championships - 1892 Leicester - 1892 South of England Championships - 1892 British Covered Court Championships - 1892 Northern Lawn Tennis Association Tournament - 1892 Fitzwilliam Plate - 1892 Sussex Championships - 1891 South of England Championships - 1891 British Covered Court Championships - 1891 London Covered Court Championships - 1891 Wimbledon - 1890 Irish Championships - 1890 Northern Lawn Tennis Association Tournament - 1890 Queens Challenge Cup - 1890 Wimbledon - 1889 Irish Championships - 1889 Cheltenham - 1889 Northern Lawn Tennis Association Tournament - 1889 Middlesex Championships - 1889 Irish Championships - 1888 Cheltenham - 1888 Championships of Wales - 1888 South of England Championships - 1888 Exmouth - 1888 Northern Lawn Tennis Association Tournament - 1888 Teignmouth and Shaldon - 1888 Middlesex Championships - 1888 Buxton - 1888 Torquay - 1888 South of England Championships - 1887 Exmouth - 1887 Teignmouth and Shaldon - 1887

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