He began playing tennis at age 6.
Medvedev made his ATP main draw debut at the 2015 Kremlin Cup, partnering Aslan Karatsev in the doubles event.
As a qualifier, Medvedev made his ATP singles main draw debut at the 2016 Nice Open, lost to Guido Pella in three sets. Three weeks later he earned his first singles ATP World Tour win at the 2016 Ricoh Open, defeating Horacio Zeballos in straight sets.
In January 2017, Medvedev reached his first ATP singles final. In the final at the Chennai Open he lost to Roberto Bautista Agut in two sets. As a result, Medvedev jumped 34 positions from 99 to 65 in the ATP rankings, a new career-high. In February, he continued his good form when advancing to the quarterfinals of both the Open Sud de France and the Open 13, losing to Jo-Wilfried Tsonga and Lucas Pouille respectively.
In June, he made it to the quarterfinals of the Rosmalen Grass Court Championships, defeating the 6th seed, Robin Haase and Thanasi Kokkinakis before losing to Ivo Karlović in straight sets. In the Aegon Championships, he advanced to his first ATP 500 quarterfinal by beating Nicolas Mahut and Thanasi Kokkinakis in the first 2 rounds, then he lost to the No. 6 seed Grigor Dimitrov in the quarterfinals. One week later, he kept up his good form on grass by advancing to the semifinal of Eastbourne International before losing to Novak Djokovic.
At Wimbledon he got his first Grand Slam victory by defeating 5th seed and world No. 3 Stan Wawrinka in the first round in four sets. This result was notable as it prevented Wawrinka from completing his career Grand Slam set (i.e. winning each of the four Grand Slam tournaments). He subsequently lost in the next round to Ruben Bemelmans. Medvedev was handed three fines totalling $14,500 (£11,200) for his conduct during the match with Bemelmans; Medvedev was fined a total of $7,000 for insulting the umpire on two occasions and a further $7,500 for throwing coins under the umpire's chair.
After Wimbledon, Medvedev was disqualified from the second round of the Savannah Challenger event (in Georgia, U.S.) for making a racist comment after the umpire ruled in favor of his opponent. Medvedev thought he had won a break point against his opponent Donald Young's serve, but chair umpire Sandy French ruled that his returning shot had gone out. Medvedev said Young and French, who are both African-Americans, were friends. He was disqualified mid-match for 'question[ing] the impartiality of the umpire based on her race'.
Medvedev started the 2018 season by qualifying for the Sydney International. He reached the final which he won against Alex de Minaur. The final became the "youngest" since 2007, when 20-year-old Rafael Nadal defeated 19-year-old Novak Djokovic in the final of Indian Wells. It also became the tournament's youngest since 1989.
Medvedev later reached the quarterfinals of the Rotterdam Open, losing to Andreas Seppi in three sets.
In August, he won his second ATP title at the 2018 Winston-Salem Open after defeating the home favorite Steve Johnson in straight sets. After losing to Borna Ćorić in the third round of the US Open, he went on to win his first ATP 500 and third ATP title in Tokyo as a qualifier, overcoming Japanese star and No. 3 seeded Kei Nishikori 6–2, 6–4 in the final match. This triumph brought him to a new career high ranking of No. 22 and made him become the No. 1 player in Russia.
In October, he continued his good form, reaching the 2018 Kremlin Cup semifinal, losing to his countryman and eventual champion Karen Khachanov. One week later, he made the ATP 500 2018 Swiss Indoors semifinals, which he lost to Roger Federer. He reached his highest ranking yet, at No. 16.
Medvedev finished 2018 with the most hard court match wins of any player on the ATP World Tour (38 wins). He also had the most titles on hard court tournaments (3 titles), tying with Roger Federer, Novak Djokovic and Karen Khachanov.
Medvedev started the 2019 season well by reaching the final of the Brisbane International. He defeated Andy Murray, Milos Raonic and Jo-Wilfried Tsonga, but lost the final to Kei Nishikori.
At the Australian Open, Medvedev was seeded 15th. He defeated qualifier Lloyd Harris, unseeded Ryan Harrison, and 21st seed David Goffin before losing to top seed Novak Djokovic in four sets in the fourth round.
Medvedev won his fourth ATP title at the Sofia Open beating Márton Fucsovics in the final in straight sets. The following week, Medvedev lost in the semifinals of the ATP 500 tournament in Rotterdam against Gaël Monfils.
Medvedev entered the 2019 Monte-Carlo Masters having only won two of his first 13 career matches on clay courts. Despite this, Medvedev reached his first ever Masters 1000 quarterfinal at the tournament after defeating world number 8 Stefanos Tsitsipas in the third round. This victory was his first against Tsitsipas on clay and extended his overall head-to-head record against the world No. 8 player to 4–0. In the quarterfinals, Medvedev earned his first triumph over a current world number 1 ranked player, when he defeated Djokovic in three sets. His run ended in the semifinals against Dušan Lajović in straight sets after squandering a 5–1 lead in the opening set. The following week at the Barcelona Open, Medvedev earned his third successive top 10 victory (this time over Nishikori) to reach his first ATP Tour final on clay. In the final, Medvedev was defeated by world number 5 Dominic Thiem in straight sets.
After the Barcelona Open, Medvedev experienced a five match losing streak. He returned to form on the grass courts of Queen's Club, reaching his sixth semifinal of the season where he lost to Gilles Simon. Medvedev made his top 10 debut after reaching the third round of Wimbledon.
Medvedev was the first player on the 2019 ATP Tour to reach both 10 and 20 match wins.
Medvedev started the North American summer hard-court swing by reaching the final of the ATP 500 tournament in Washington where he was defeated by Nick Kyrgios. The next week, he followed this up with a strong performance at the Rogers Cup. Seeded eighth, he defeated Kyle Edmund and Cristian Garín to reach the quarterfinals, where he defeated second seed Dominic Thiem in less than an hour. In the semifinals he defeated sixth seed Karen Khachanov to reach his first ever Masters final, where he was defeated by defending champion and top seed Rafael Nadal.
Medvedev would reach a second consecutive Masters final at the 2019 Western & Southern Open after beating defending champion Djokovic for the second time. In the final, he defeated David Goffin in straight sets for his first Masters title.
Medvedev entered the 2019 US Open as the world number 5, he was seeded eighth and was among the top ten seeds of a Grand Slam tournament for the first time in his career. As well as he was one of the leading contenders to end the dominant streak of Djokovic, Nadal and Roger Federer at Grand Slam tournaments.
In his second round match, Medvedev fought off cramping to defeat his opponent Hugo Dellien in four sets. He then defeated Feliciano López in a contentious match for which Medvedev was fined $5,000 for unsportsmanlike conduct and $4,000 for a visible obscenity. He then recovered from a set and a break deficit to beat qualifier Dominik Köpfer and reach his first Major quarterfinal. In the quarterfinals, he beat former champion Stan Wawrinka in four sets to become the first player representing Russia to reach the semifinals of a Major since Mikhail Youzhny at the 2010 US Open (Youzhny also defeated Wawrinka in the quarterfinals). Additionally, the victory earned Medvedev a place at the ATP Finals. He became the first Russian man to qualify for the Finals as a non-alternate player since 2009, when Nikolay Davydenko won the title. Medvedev reached his first Grand Slam final after beating former No. 3 Grigor Dimitrov in the semifinals in straight sets. In the final, Medvedev was defeated by Nadal in five sets.
Medvedev uses off-speed shots to disturb his opponents, in lieu of flashy and powerful groundstrokes.
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